What is React Redux? A comprehensive guide

what is react redux

In the ever-evolving landscape of web development, there’s a dynamic duo that consistently stands out, powering some of the most interactive and engaging digital experiences – React and Redux. Together, they form React Redux, a formidable combination that has fundamentally transformed the way developers build and manage web applications.

What is React?

React is a popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces, particularly single-page applications where you need a fast, interactive user experience. It allows developers to create large web applications that can change data, without reloading the page. The main purpose of React is to be fast, scalable, and simple. It works only on user interfaces in the application. This corresponds to the view in the MVC template.

React allows developers to create components, which are reusable pieces of code that can control their own state and properties. These components can then be combined, reused, and nested within each other to build complex user interfaces.

What is Redux?

Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript applications. It helps you manage the state of your app in a predictable way. Redux can be described as a state machine that is there to help manage the state of your JavaScript apps in a predictable way. It’s an open-source project that was developed by Dan Abramov and Andrew Clark in 2015.

But when combined, what is React Redux? React Redux is the official Redux UI binding library for React. If you’re using Redux in a React application, you should also be using React Redux to bind these two libraries together. React Redux provides a way for your React components to read data from the Redux store, and dispatch actions to the store to update data.

Why React Redux and How It Works?

React Redux is used for managing the state of the application more predictably and effectively. It works by storing the state of the entire application in a single JavaScript object called the store. When a change is made, a new state object is created. This makes it easier to track changes and debug the application.

React Redux works by using a “connect” function that connects a React component to the Redux store. This function provides the state of the store as props to the component and allows the component to dispatch actions to the store. The connect function does a lot of work behind the scenes to make sure your component gets the right state values and the right dispatch props.

Principles of React Redux

  1. Single Source of Truth: The state of your whole application is stored in an object tree within a single store. This makes the state predictable and easier to debug. It also enables you to persist your app’s state in development, and restore it on page reload, which is a huge advantage in terms of user experience.
  2. State is Read-Only: The only way to change the state is to emit an action, an object describing what happened. This ensures that neither views nor network callbacks will ever write directly to the state. Instead, they express an intent to transform the state. This complete record of user operations can be used to reproduce user sessions, if needed.
  3. Changes are Made with Pure Functions: To specify how the state tree is transformed by actions, you write pure reducers. Reducers are just functions that take the previous state and an action, and return the next state. Because they’re pure, reducers won’t modify the input state but instead return a new object if the state changes. This makes it easier to understand how a particular action transformed the state of your application.

These principles make React Redux predictable, easy to understand, and efficient to work with, especially in large-scale applications where state management can become complex.

Architecture of React Redux

The architecture of React Redux revolves around the Redux store, actions, and reducers.

  1. Store: The store is a JavaScript object that holds the application’s state tree. There should only be a single store in a Redux app. The store is created by calling the createStore function and passing in a reducer function.
  2. Action: Actions are plain JavaScript objects that represent payloads of information that send data from your application to your store. They are the only source of information for the store. An action describes what happened, but doesn’t describe how the application’s state changes.
  3. Reducers: Reducers specify how the application’s state changes in response to actions sent to the store. They are pure functions that take the current state and an action, and return a new state. Reducers are the most important concept in Redux. They do the actual work of updating the state. They are pure functions in that they do not modify the inputs and always return the same result for the same inputs.

How React and Redux Work Together

React and Redux work together through the React Redux library. The “connect” function from React Redux connects a React component to the Redux store. It provides the state of the store as props to the component and allows the component to dispatch actions to the store. This allows the React component to interact with the Redux state and dispatch actions to update the state.

When an action is dispatched, the Redux store calls the reducer with the current state and the action.The reducer returns the next state, and the Redux store updates the state. The React Redux connect function then makes sure that the React component is updated with the new state.

  1. Connecting the React Component to the Redux Store: To connect a React component to the Redux store, the React Redux library provides the “connect” function. This function creates a higher-order component (HOC) that wraps the target component, providing it with access to the Redux store’s state and the ability to dispatch actions.

The “connect” function takes in two main arguments: “mapStateToProps” and “mapDispatchToProps”. These arguments are optional and define how the component will interact with the Redux store.

  1. “mapStateToProps”: Mapping the Store State to Component Props: The “mapStateToProps” function is used to specify which parts of the Redux store’s state should be passed to the component as props. It takes the store’s state as input and returns an object containing the props that will be injected into the connected component.

By mapping the state to component props, the connected component can access the relevant data from the Redux store and use it to render the UI or make further decisions.

  1. “mapDispatchToProps”: Mapping Actions to Component Props: The “mapDispatchToProps” function is used to map the action dispatching functions to component props. It allows the component to dispatch actions to update the Redux store’s state.

The “mapDispatchToProps” function takes in the Redux store’s “dispatch” function as input and returns an object containing the action dispatching functions that will be injected into the connected component.

By mapping the actions to component props, the connected component can trigger the desired state changes by dispatching the appropriate actions.

  1. React Component Updates and Rendering: Once a React component is connected to the Redux store using the “connect” function, it receives the specified state and action dispatching functions as props. Whenever the Redux store’s state changes or actions are dispatched, the connected component will receive the updated state via props.

The React component uses the received props to update its internal state, re-render the UI, and reflect the changes from the Redux store. React’s reconciliation algorithm ensures that only the necessary parts of the component’s UI are updated, optimizing performance.

Through this connection, React components can seamlessly interact with the Redux store, accessing state data and dispatching actions to modify the state.

By combining the power of React’s component model and efficient rendering with Redux’s predictable state management, React Redux provides a robust solution for building complex applications with centralized state management and efficient UI updates.

Pros and Cons of React Redux

Like any technology, Redux has its pros and cons. Understanding these can help you decide when it’s best to use Redux.

  1. Predictability: Redux helps you manage your state in a predictable manner. It enforces a unidirectional data flow and follows strict structure, which makes the application more predictable and easier to understand.
  2. Maintainability: Redux has strict coding patterns and encourages developers to write consistent code. This makes the code more maintainable and easier for someone else in the team to understand.
  3. Server Rendering: Redux can be easily used for server-side rendering. With it, you can handle the initial render of your app and get a fast first-page load and better SEO performance.
  4. Developer Tools: Redux offers a powerful developer toolset for debugging application’s state changes. It includes features like hot reloading and time-travel debugging.
  5. Community and Ecosystem: Redux has a large community of developers and a rich ecosystem of plugins, which makes it a reliable choice for state management.

Cons of React Redux:

  1. Complexity: Redux introduces a lot of new concepts which can be overwhelming to beginners. It requires you to learn about actions, reducers, dispatchers, and store, among other things.
  2. Boilerplate Code: Redux requires you to write a lot of boilerplate code, which some developers find tedious.
  3. Overkill for Small Apps: If your application is simple, using Redux might be overkill. The benefit of Redux comes into play when you have large-scale, complex applications where managing state becomes difficult.
  4. Async Code is a Bit Tricky: Handling asynchronous operations in Redux can be a bit tricky and often requires middleware like Redux-Thunk or Redux-Saga.

When to Use React-Redux

  1. Large-scale Applications: React-Redux is well-suited for large-scale applications that require complex state management and a clear separation of concerns. When an application’s state needs to be shared and accessed by multiple components across the UI hierarchy, React Redux provides an efficient solution for managing and updating that state.
  2. Collaboration and Teamwork: React Redux is beneficial when working in teams or collaborating on a project. Its standardized patterns and well-defined separation of concerns make it easier for multiple developers to work on different parts of the application simultaneously. Redux’s centralized state management also facilitates better communication and coordination among team members.
  3. Complex Data Flows: If an application has complex data flows, where multiple components need to access and update shared data, React Redux provides a structured and predictable approach. The unidirectional data flow in Redux ensures that data changes are handled consistently and can be traced easily, simplifying the debugging and maintenance processes.
  4. State Persistence and Time-Travel Debugging: React Redux is valuable when state persistence and time-travel debugging are important requirements. Redux allows for persisting the state across page reloads or app restarts, providing a seamless user experience. Moreover, Redux’s time-travel debugging capabilities enable developers to replay actions and track the application’s state at different points in time, making it easier to diagnose and fix bugs.

Future of React Redux in Web Development

The future of React Redux in web development looks bright and promising. As web applications continue to grow in complexity, the need for efficient state management solutions like Redux will only increase.

React Redux has established itself as a reliable and efficient solution for managing state in large-scale applications. Its principles of predictability, centralization, and immutability make it a powerful tool for developers.

Moreover, the React Redux library is actively maintained and has a large community of developers, ensuring its continued relevance in the future. The library continues to evolve, with new features and improvements being added regularly to keep up with the changing landscape of web development.

In addition, the rise of server-side rendering and static site generation for performance benefits has given a new perspective to React Redux. With the advent of Next.js, a popular framework for server-rendered React applications, React Redux can play a crucial role in managing state on the server side.

However, it’s also worth noting that the landscape of state management in React is evolving, with new approaches like React’s built-in Context API and Hooks gaining popularity. While these solutions can be great for smaller applications, Redux still stands out for larger applications with more complex state management needs.


 React Redux provides a solid foundation for building modern web applications, offering a balance between simplicity, flexibility, and performance. Whether you’re working on a small personal project or a large-scale enterprise application, React Redux equips you with the tools and patterns necessary to create robust and scalable applications that meet the demands of today’s dynamic web landscape.

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